A theory to describe the puzzling matter–antimatter asymmetry, the nature of elusive dark matter as well as tremendous intensity and the irregularities of space-time fabric in the early universe.

Published on: May 30, 2019

By Ismail Adil

Based on evidence, the big bang should have created equal amounts of matter and antimatter in the early universe. Antimatter particles share the same mass as their matter counterparts, but qualities such as electric charge are opposite. And when matter and antimatter meet, they annihilate, leaving nothing but energy. Yet there is an imbalance in the matter over the antimatter in the present day universe. On the other hand, we have strong evidence that most “mass” in the universe is in the form of invisible “dark matter”. About 85 percent of the matter (mass) in the universe is dark matter which has defied detection so far and it interacts mainly via gravity. This unknown dark matter phenomena as well as matter-antimatter asymmetry cannot be explained in existing theories comfortably. This manuscript is to propose evidence based hypothetical theory to explain those phenomena in most plausible terms. Thus, the very first moment after the big bang, space-time was extremely distorted as universe was so small in size. Its intensity and matter-energy density was so great. And when particle/antiparticle pairs were formed, its inertia (inertial mass of the particles and antiparticles) was enormously high relatively. As rapid expansion of the universe continues, matter-energy density varied slightly at different points of space-time in this infant universe. As a result space-time fabric warped and fluctuated at different points in an irregular dynamics, occurring time dilation (time fluctuation) effect and inertial mass varied in different points relatively. This made Coulomb attraction velocity vary in-between elementary particles. Yet with these irregularities, most of the matter and antimatter particles were annihilated. Due to enormous inertia (immensely heavy particles/antiparticles) caused by immense intensity of space-time points of this newborn universe, most of the antimatter and some regular matter particles were undergoes gravitational collapse, forming tiny single particle primordial black holes and engulfed those particles into space-time fabric itself, When universe expanded and cooled, so its intensity became low and those engulfed particles becomes dark matter in the present day universe. Yet with these irregularities of space-time and inhomogeneous conditions in the early universe, fewer regular matter particles survived as ordinary matter which makes up most of the visible universe today .This paper also intend to explain to solve the black hole information paradox quite neatly as black holes accumulate mass and energy from its accretion disk and those information are diffused back space-time fabric without destroying.

INTRODUCTION
During the epoch of the early universe, within the very first second after the big bang, temperatures cooled enough to form elementary particles and antiparticles pairs (quarks and other elementary particles) of equal amounts of matter and antimatter. Warping of space-time distortion and its intensity was so great, the size of this newly born universe so small and space-time were so compressed and distorted, compared to present day universe. Tremendously great energy density in that extreme environmental condition made inertia (inertial mass of the particles and antiparticles) immensely high. Due to rapid continuous expansion of this infant and minuscule universe made minute variations of matter (mass) & energy density distributions. And with these inhomogeneous conditions in the scalar filed of different points made particles/antiparticles inertial mass and their time varied relative to the other points. This variation also occurred in-between the particle pairs. So time dilation (time fluctuations) and variation of the inertial mass in different points of space relatively affect the fate of the particles (matter/antimatter) in the universe.

As a result of these irregular time dilations in the early universe, some particle’s decay time and their Coulomb attraction velocity was different than its counterpart particles relatively in different points, hence most particles and their antiparticles get annihilated (in a particle pairs, where time runs almost equally fast relative to its opposite particle). Whereas in a particle pairs, one particle’s Coulomb attraction velocity is slower than its opposite particle, then the slower particle (immensely heavy particles and antiparticles), might undergo gravitational collapse and forming tiny single-particle primordial black holes and were engulfed into space-time fabric itself. These intense space-time ripples (gravitational waves) made more uneven conditions in the early universe. In a particle pair, if one particle Coulomb attraction velocity was faster than its opposite particle, it may interact with another opposite particle (from another particle pair) and get annihilated. And some particles (a tiny portion of regular matter and almost nil amount of antimatter) survived in those extreme environments and undergo nucleosynthesis to form visible matter.

Those Immensely heavy particles and antiparticles undergone gravitational collapse and formed single-particle primordial black holes and were engulfed into space-time fabric itself, creating a kind of space-time-matter-bubbles. It’s more like bubbles or impurities in a fluid. As expansion of the universe continues, temperature cools and its size increases, space-time intensity becomes weak. Therefore inertial mass of the particles and antiparticles becomes extremely low as of today as we are able to measure it in regular matter particles. This phenomenon may suggest that most of the engulfed antimatter particles and some regular matter particles were formed into dark matter in the present day universe. And yet it causes gravitation effects to the visible ordinary matter due to curvature of space-time fabric.

Note: the excess amount of regular matter in the universe may be leftover of matter and antimatter interactions, as well as survived from the engulfed matter (dark matter) due to extreme conditions as well as the irregularities and fluctuations in the early universe. And those tiny amounts of antimatter particles that survived again interact with regular matter particles and get annihilated and very fewer antimatter particles survived and spread across the visible universe today.

SPACETIME AND INERTIA IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE
The discovery of gravitational waves may describe the dynamics and the very nature of space-time fabric in detail. It is more like a medium which can bend, distort and warp when mass interacts with it. This also helps to explain the link between space-time and inertia (inertial mass), “a tendency to resist change in its states”. This change in its state is due to mass interacts with space-time fabric’s density or intensity. When mass is high, space-time curvature is great and so its inertia is high. This may hint that during the early universe, inertia (inertial mass) will be extremely enormous in particles which have a mass, because at that scale, universe is so small in size with extremely folded space-time fabric. So, its intensity will be enormously great unit per volume, compared to present day universe. And also the same result may indicate if we looked at the Standard Model point of view. The Higgs filed will be extremely concentrated during the epic of the early stages of the universe. And based on these assumptions we may conclude that space-time intensity might have weakened over the period of time and this may affect the Newtonian gravitational constant, G, as some physicists predicted.

DARK MATTER INTERACTIONS
Dark matter does not interact with ordinary matter and it does not absorb, reflect or emit electromagnetic radiation and it interacts through gravity only. For this reason dark matter cannot be visualized or detected, but its gravity effects can bend space-time geometry. And based on the proposed hypothesis in this paper, dark matter (engulfed antimatter and regular matter) particles are trapped into space-time fabric as single discrete particles and very few are in two or more bundled particles together. This might be the reason that dark matter particles are collisionless and it cannot be formed into planetary or galactic shapes and distributes more like halos when gravity acts.

WHAT SUPPORT THIS THEORY?
There are some strong observational findings and other scientific evidence to support this idea, that dark matter is the outcome of the matter/antimatter asymmetry, which were engulfed into the space-time fabric itself during the early universe. Some of the supporting evidence and findings are mentioned in this paper.

Particle decay time varies due to extreme velocity
CERN’s particle accelerator (LHC) and others have shown particle decay time is slow relatively when a particle travels near the speed of light. This time slowing effect indicates that time dilation is applicable for micro cosmos to macro cosmos as Einstein’s relativity predicted and this may even be relevant at the very first moment after the big bang, due to extremely distorted space-time fabric in the early universe.

The excess amount of “Photons” in the universe
Astronomers have found that most abundant elementary particle in the universe is Photon (apart from dark matter), which has no rest mass. It is followed by Neutrinos which have very small but nonzero masses. Based on the theory proposed on this paper, the reason of this excess amount of Photons in the present day universe is because it is a massless particle. During the early universe space-time’s intensity were enormous as its conditions were extreme. And in the case of “Photon” which has no mass and they are electrically neutral. Therefore it won’t interact with its opposite anti-particle and do not annihilate. Also Photons won’t go into gravitational collapse too, because it’s a massless particle. In the case of Neutrino, which has infinitesimally small mass, and is also electrically neutral, won’t get annihilate either. But due to its extremely small mass, some of them had undergone gravitational collapse, depending on the condition of the point of universe which those existed. The fate of the elementary particles depends on its inertial mass. The heavier particles undergo gravitational collapse than less heavy particles and were engulfed into space-time fabric, during the early universe to form dark matter.

Dark matter movements are much slower than the visible matter
Researchers have discovered 4 bright cluster colliding galaxies (Abell 3827) which consist of dark matter, apparently moving much slowly than its host galaxy. And this phenomenon enables to explain, that most of the dark matter (matter and antimatter) particles were trapped into a single particle discrete space-time-matter-bubbles and were engulfed within the space-time fabric, rather than it interact with other bits of dark matter or due to some unknown force. And this slowing effect of dark matter may also shows how space-time fabric dynamics affects when countless individual space-time-matter-bubbles (dark matter particles) interacts with regular matter via gravity.

Contains less dark matter in some ultra-defuse galaxies
Studies of galaxy surveys have shown an ultra-defuse galaxy, known as NGC 1052-DF2, contains at least 400 times less dark matter than scientists predicted. And in a recent study, researchers found another ultra-diffuse galaxy, NGC 1052-DF4 (or DF4) contains little to no dark matter. The discovery of DF2 and DF4 is an undeniable proof that galaxies with little to no dark matter exists. And this shows that dark matter is not always coupled with ordinary matter as previously thought. This may also demonstrates that dark matter spread across the universe like ordinary matter and interact via gravity. It can be everywhere, mostly galaxies and dense regions. This shows that dark matter is not a special entity required to exist in galaxies to hold together. So it might be a just regular type of matter (antimatter and matter particles), like engulfed impurities in space-time fabric.

Primordial black holes theory
Astronomers explored the background glow of infrared light in one part of the sky using NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope during 2005. The researchers found excessive patchiness in the glow and concluded it was likely caused by the aggregate light of the first sources to illuminate the universe more than 13 billion years ago. Follow-up studies confirmed that this cosmic infrared background (CIB) showed similar unexpected structure in other parts of the sky as well. Some scientists suggest that this interpretation with knowledge of cosmic infrared and X-ray background glows may explain the unexpectedly high masses caused by primordial black holes, which were formed in the very early universe at the cosmic time of less than 1 second.

The miniature single-particle black holes proposed in this paper is not describing huge massive objects or some exotic particles. But it is just a regular type of matter and antimatter elementary particles. These were engulfed into space-time fabric in the early universe, due to enormous inertial mass on the particles as space-time fabric’s intensity were extremely great.

CONCLUSION
Based on the discoveries and evidences like excess amount of Photons and Neutrinos in the universe, cosmic infrared and X-ray background glows of the very early universe and the slow movement of dark matter in colliding galaxies as well as the absence of dark matter in some of the ultra-defuse galaxies, etc… the most possible explanation of asymmetric existence of matter will be during the very early universe space-time intensity was tremendously great As a result, extreme inertia and irregular time dilation cause gravitational collapse of antimatter and matter particles forming single particle primordial black holes and those were engulfed within the space-time fabric itself. Universe expands and cools, space-time intensity becomes low as today we observe those engulfed particles as dark matter. And if only about 15% of the matter (mass) are in the present day universe is in the form of visible matter, then the most plausible conclusion is that dark matter particles (mass) are made up of regular matter, consisting of about 50% antimatter particles as well as 35% regular matter particles. With this theory we may able to solve the missing antimatter phenomena as well as the nature of unknown dark matter existence in the universe based on scientific evidences ingeniously. Yet to know more about dark matter in detail we need to study extremely massive objects like black holes and also gravitational waves, because in these phenomena we can study the nature of space-time fabric and how dark matter interacts with it. Apart from the available evidence, this theory also does some prediction to test empirically verify its validity like; space-time intensity has to be weakening over the period of time, therefore initial mass of every particle in the universe are decreasing as size of the universe increases and also if we could calculate mass of the dark matter particles, it should be same as regular elementary particles to work this theory well.

REFERENCES
arxiv.org/pdf/1504.03388.pdf
www.nature.com/articles/nature25767
www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2016/nasa-scientist-suggests-possible-link-between-primordial-black-holes-and-dark-matter
iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/2041-8205/823/2/L25
iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/2041-8213/ab0d92/meta